Early Online (Volume - 5 | Issue - 1)

COVID-19: A unique opportunity for population health to align with nursing schools to help vulnerable populations at risk of adverse outcomes

Published on: 1st February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8913434420

COVID-19 created a public health crisis shutting down many normal day-to-day activities and adversely affecting life, as we know it. Not only did this affect vulnerable, senior populations and people with poorly managed diabetes and hypertension [1-4], it displaced nursing students from clinical experiences putting them at risk of not graduating. Given the projected shortages of RNs in 2030, in California alone of 44,500 FTEs [5], this delay would have added a ripple effect increasing already dire predictions. This displacement created an emergency and with the aid of the Board of Registered Nursing, Assembly Bill 2288 [6] passed allowing student nurse clinical experience requirements to be revised to help meet graduation requirements.
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The impact of the surgical mask on the relationship between patient and family nurse in primary care

Published on: 11th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8982622312

Objective: In primary care, during treatments, nurses may need to wear surgical masks, namely for control of infection contamination, or to minimize unpleasant odors. The goal of this study is to inspect the effect of nurses wearing the mask on patient perception of the nurse-patient relation. Methods: A pre-post-test, control-experimental group design was employed with 60 patients treated in family health units. Patients responded to the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire III (PSQ-III) regarding nurses’ communication, interpersonal manner, technical quality, as well regarding general satisfaction with the encounter. An additional question asked both patients and nurses how long they felt that the visit lasted. Results: Results show that nurses wearing the surgical mask had significantly negative effects in all dimensions of PSQ-III and increased the perceived visit duration among both nurses and patients. Conclusion: When a previous relationship exists, nurses wearing the surgical mask in primary care in Portugal negatively affects patient satisfaction with both the patient-nurse relation and the nurses’ technical quality. Practice implications: Is important the nurse understand this impact to discuss with the colleagues the best strategy to minimize the negative impact to the patient- family nurse relation and manager this situation in the best way to the patient. 
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Evidence-based primary care approach to treating people with COVID-19 infection to prevent life-threatening complications: A review of the evidence for practical application in a clinical setting

Published on: 16th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8982637175

The NIH has published treatment guidelines for treating COVID-19 patients in the hospital. However, as of this writing, there are no established protocols for treating COVID-19 positive patients in primary care. Accordingly, this investigator has taken on the task of reviewing the medical literature to be able to propose evidence-based protocols for treating COVID-19 positive patients in primary care. The CDC is advising people to do nothing when they find out they are positive for COVID-19 unless they have symptoms. The evidence from the literature irrefutably shows COVID-19 infection evokes a massive and deadly hyperinflammatory response called the “Cytokine storm” and that Cytokine levels in the blood have a predictive value in identifying an impending Cytokine storm. With such data primary care providers can effectively lower Cytokine levels and prevent critical illness and death. Accordingly, this paper presents identification of the problem of not having standard practices in primary care for people who are positive for COVID-19 and not knowing who is at risk. Moreover, the evidence shows that knowing vitamin D levels and correcting deficiencies can go a long way in reducing Cytokine levels. Additionally, the literature review presents evidence that undeniably shows the stark possibility that many of the COVID-19 related deaths can be prevented by identifying who is at risk for the Cytokine storm and other complications and providing early treatment even before symptoms appear.
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Experiences of patients with lung cancer receiving concurrent chemo-radiotherapy

Published on: 23rd March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8982640075

Purpose: In an aspect of qualitative treatment, this research gathered lung cancer patients’ actual experiences to understand deeply, such as their expectation for treatment results, their difficulties during treatment, and their various requests to their family and medical teams. Methods: From May to June 2013, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 lung cancer patients. Data were collected through a tape-recorded in-depth interview. The analysis of the data was made through the qualitative method. Results: 124 themes regarding the experience were found. From these 35 concepts, 24 subcategories were emerged. The core category was enduring hardship of the treatment with the hope for full recovery. Six categories included ‘Wishing to be cured but concern about recurrence’, ‘Receiving radiation treatment with pleasure and difficult at the same time’. ‘Being sorry for their family’s full support and trying to stand alone‘, ‘Having confidence in their medical team’, ‘regretting for their old days’, and ‘Wanting to live a long life without illness and pain’. Conclusion: The results of this study would help oncology nurses to understand the lung cancer patients receiving concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) and to develop a quality of life improvement program for physical, psychosocial, and spiritual aspects of nursing.
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Ambivalent sexist attitudes of young adolescents from the province of Jaén: Regarding the use of sexual and/or pornographic content on the internet

Published on: 26th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9031337467

Knowing the possible origin of sexist attitudes in adolescents is essential when educating them to avoid gender violence derived from them. Nurses have an important role in education for the health of children and adolescents, so we must study the risk factors that lead to these attitudes and how to prevent them. Some studies such as Landripet, et al. have undertaken to study the association between frequency of pornography use and preference for violent and coercive content in male adolescents. Sexism and pornography use have been associated by various authors. Hostile sexism is the most obvious and traditional form, based on the supposed inferiority or difference of women as a group. According to benevolent sexism, women are understood as deserving of affection, respect and protection, as long as they are limited to certain traditional feminine roles. The second is even more difficult to detect. Our aim in this work is to evaluate ambivalent sexist attitudes in young adolescents in the province of Jaén and check whether there is a relationship between use of pornography and sexual content, and the kinds of sexism studied, in order to be able to prevent these attitudes as nurses through health education. The final sample was made up of 150 participants from all school years, belonging to the same secondary school, 74 male and 76 female. They were aged between 12 and 18 years old. One of the conclusions of this work has been that the use of new technologies is in addition starting at even younger ages due to the situation of online teaching due to the pandemic, and it has been observed that age at first use is a determining factor.
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Self-care practice and associated factors among type 2 adult diabetic patients on follow up clinic of Dessie referral hospital, Northeast Ethiopia

Published on: 7th June, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9186926795

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common health problem in the world and Africa including Ethiopia. Its complication is the major cause of morbidity and mortality of people due to improper self-care practice. Objective: To assess self-care practices and associated factors among type 2 adult diabetic patients on follow-up clinic of Dessie referral hospital, Ethiopia. Method: Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted. Total of 278 type 2 diabetic patients was selected by systematic random sampling technique and data was collected by interviewer administered pretested questionnaire. Epidata 3.1 and SPSS version 23 software were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. In bivariate analysis, variables having a p - value of < 0.2 were entered to multivariate analysis model and statistical significance was declared at p - value of < 0.05 and 95% confidence interval. Results: The response rate was 269 (96.76%) of the total 278 participants. Among the respondents 150(55.8%) had good diabetic self-care practice. This study showed that primary school education level (AOR=2.592, 95%CI=1.104-6.087, p = 0.029), secondary school education level (AOR=3.873, 95%CI=1.325-11.323, p = 0.013), college/university graduate (AOR=3.030, 95%CI=1.276-7.197, 0.012), attended diabetic education regularly (AOR=2.981, 95%CI=1.050-8.462, p = 0.040), member of diabetic association (AOR=3.496, 95%CI=1.440-8.483, p = 0.006) and having glucometer at home (AOR=2.634, 95%CI=1.357-5.111, p = 0.004) were significantly associated with diabetes self-care practice. Conclusion: Nearly half of diabetic patients had poor self care practice. Hence, there is a need to improve diabetic self-care practice. Attention should be given by policy makers, Dessie referral hospital, health care professionals, diabetic associations and researchers.
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Nurses' knowledge and practice in assessment and management of neonatal pain at Governmental Hospitals in Gaza Strip: A cross sectional study

Published on: 6th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9186947792

Objective: The study aimed to investigate neonatal nurses' knowledge and practices related to pain assessment and management that may contribute to improve the quality of pain management by nurses at Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) of governmental hospitals in Gaza Strip. Design: The study design was quantitative, descriptive cross sectional, conducted at the NICUs affiliated to the governmental hospitals "Al Shifa Hospital - Al Nasser Pediatric Hospital - European Gaza Hospital". Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of all nurses working in NICUs. The total number of nurses was 102. The data were collected from study participants by using a self-administered questionnaire. The response rate was 100%. The data collected were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical tests with level of statistical significance at p < 0.5. Results: The results showed that nurses had very low of knowledge level with mean percentages (59.42%) and very low of practice level with mean percentages (58.33%). Conclusion: Therefore, the study recommended to developing course or educational program related to assessment and management of neonatal pain to promote their integrated pain management care for neonates.
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Sleep quality and associated factors among patients with chronic illness at South Wollo Zone Public Hospitals, Northeast Ethiopia

Published on: 20th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9186943722

Background: Pathological and nighttime sleep deprivations have substantial adverse effects on regulation of weight, sugar and blood pressure because of endothelial dysfunction, sympathetic nervous system stimulation, regulation and activation of systemic inflammation. Thus, this study was aimed to assess quality of sleep among patients with chronic illness and its associated factors at South Wollo Zone Public Hospitals, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods and Materials: The study was conducted at South Wollo Zone Public Hospitals, Northeast Ethiopia from February 15 2019 till April 15 2019. Institutional based cross sectional study design was employed. All patients with chronic illness who are on follow up in South Wollo Zone Public Hospitals were sources of population. Sample size was calculated by using EPI info version 7 and the total sample size was 344. The study employed stratified random sampling technique and study participants were selected by systematic sampling. After taking ethical approval from College of Medicine and Health Sciences Ethical Approval Committee, permission from selected Hospitals and informed verbal consent from patients, the data were collected by a tool which has 3 parts: Sociodemographic data, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and factors affecting sleep quality. Data were entered in to Epi data version 4.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Service Product 25 for analysis. Different data presentation tools and binary logistic regression were enrolled by considering 95% confidence level and p value of 0.05. Result: Among the total study participants, near to one third (31.7%) of them got sleep after 30 minutes. More than one fourth of them slept for less than 7 hours. Less than half of the study participants had habitual sleep efficiency of more than 85% however 296(86%) of them did not face day time dysfunction Conclusion and recommendations: more than one third of patients with chronic illness had poor sleep quality. One third of study participants had sleep duration of less than the recommendations(less than 7 hours). Age, educational status, residence, and perception of prognosis of disease were factors that have associations with poor sleep quality among patients with chronic illness. Health care providers who are doing in chronic illness follow up clinic should be initiated to assess and screen those patients with poor sleep quality.
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Descriptive study to assess the knowledge on risk factors of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Published on: 30th September, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9278266118

CAD is the most common type of CVD which is characterized by deposits of lipids within the intima of the coronary artery. CAD is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in many countries worldwide. The investigators adopted a quantitative approach to assess the knowledge on risk factors of CAD among patients in selected OPDs of M.O.S.C Medical College Hospital, Kolenchery. A descriptive design with non-probability convenience sampling technique was used. 120 clients who have given consent and shown willingness to participate were enrolled in the study. Data was collected by using demographic proforma, and structured knowledge questionnaireThe data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The collected data was organized tabulated and analyzed by descriptive [mean, median, mode and standard deviation] and inferential statistics [chi-square test].The data revealed that the level of knowledge on risk factors of cad among subjects attending selected OPDs, out of 120 samples 30 (25%) have good knowledge, 85 (71%) have average knowledge and only 5 (4%) have poor knowledge. There was significant association between knowledge level and education whereas there was no significant association between age, sex, religion, income, marital status, occupation and food habit.
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